The rise of Islamic empires and states
Start studying World History - 6th - Book Notes - Lesson 2 - The Arab empire and the caliphates. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and.and and and how long do you thaw a frozen turkey weather on october 6 2018 why can t muslims touch dogs
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The third Caliph , Uthman ibn Affan r. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria , who became the sixth Caliph after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in After Mu'awiyah's death in , conflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War  and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the Abbasids in
Caliphate , the political-religious state comprising the Muslim community and the lands and peoples under its dominion in the centuries following the death ce of the Prophet Muhammad. This article covers the history of the original caliphal state based in Arabia, the Levant , and Mesopotamia in the 7th—13th century. The rightly guided caliphs largely established the administrative and judicial organization of the Muslim community and directed the conquest of new lands. In the s Syria , Jordan , Palestine , and Iraq were conquered, Egypt was taken from Byzantine control in , and frequent raids were launched into North Africa, Armenia , and Persia. The majority of Muslims regarded the Umayyads as nominally Muslim at best, given their worldly and opulent lifestyles. They were also unpopular on account of their having established dynastic rule by force.
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In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate , the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from During the history of Islam , a few other Muslim states , almost all hereditary monarchies , have claimed to be caliphates. Prior to the rise of Muhammad and the unification of the tribes of Arabia under Islam, Arabs followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism , lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic tribal communities and often raided their neighbouring tribes and sedentary civilisations in the region. The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established immediately after Muhammad's death in The caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers, especially in the region of Syria. The third caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbasids, a dynasty of Meccan origin which descended from Hashim , a great-grandfather of Muhammad, making them part of Banu Hashim, via Abbas , an uncle of Muhammad, hence the name. Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdad in which became a major scientific, cultural and art centre, as did the territory as a whole during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age.
Early Islamic World
Caliphate: The Arab Conquest
The golden age of Islam
Muhammad united the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life. He established a new unified Arabian Peninsula, which led to the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates and the rapid expansion of Muslim power over the next century. With additional support, Abu Bakr was confirmed as the first caliph religious successor to Muhammad that same year. Ali would eventually become the fourth Sunni caliph. Sunni Muslims believe and confirm that Abu Bakr was chosen by the community and that this was the proper procedure. Sunnis further argue that a caliph should ideally be chosen by election or community consensus.
Start studying The Arab empire and the Caliphates. When Harun al-Rashi-d died, his two sons were fighting over who would take his place and nearly destroyed the the city of Baghdad. Also there was APWH - Chapter 28 49 Terms. n-ouk.
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